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Greek authors later rendered this as "Hyksos," which was mistranslated as "shepherd kings." For this reason many scholars believed the Hyksos to be the Hebrews, although there is no archaeological basis for this assumption.

They were probably city dwellers from southern Canaan (later called Palestine by the Romans).

In a word, it appears that the biblical, historical, and archaeological data are best served by theorizing that it was a Hyksos monarch before whom Joseph stood as an interpreter of dreams (Gen.

-37) and who later ceded a choice parcel of land (Goshen) to Joseph's family (Gen. According to such a theory, the "new king" of Exodus 1:8 would have been one of the native Egyptian monarchs of the New Kingdom who, as part of his Hyksos purge, resolutely refused to recognize the validity of the Goshen land grant.

This sovereign appears to have launched at least twenty-one military campaigns against the Hyksos and their Asiatic allies (Amorites, Hurrians), and in a few of those he boasted that he even crossed the Euphrates River to rout the enemy and to free Egypt from its influence.

At the end of the 12th dynasty a people called "Hyksos" settled down in the eastern delta.

It also might explain why there is no historical mention of Joseph.

Despite this, the southern Egyptian city of Thebes finally began a war of independence that culminated with the expulsion of the Hyksos by Ahmose I in 1567 BC.During that time, a concerted effort was mounted to rid Egypt of any trace of Hyksos influence.One illustration of that is found in the historical records of Thutmosis III.Discerning in the Israelites a multitude who might very well join with his Asiatic enemies in war, this new king moreover acted quickly to enslave the Israelites.The above-mentioned theory also fits well with the historical profile attested in the book of Genesis.

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